Refusal of infant baptism punished by drowning

Credobaptism (baptism only of those who confess belief) was outlawed on penalty of death by the legal code Corpus Juris Civilis, by Emperor Justinian, 527-565. This passage has also been removed from the King James Bible in the new versions:

Acts 8:37 And Philip said, If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest. And he answered and said, I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.

“This code incorporated ecclesiastical decrees of the emperors and doctrinal resolutions of the church councils into the civil laws of the state, thus transforming them into judicial statutes to be en forced by the secular power. A whole section of the code deals with the question of rebaptism, specifying capital punishment as the penalty for this act. Since the Code of Justinian was adopted by the “Christianized” countries of Western Europe, it is not surprising that the law against heretics found application century after century. In fact, when Roman Catholics and Protestant Re formers alike sanctioned capital punishment for Anabaptists in the sixteenth century, they did so on the strength of the Justinian Code.” –SDA Church

From the Belgic Confession of Faith, article 34:
“…we detest the error of the Anabaptists, who are not content with the one only baptism they have once received, and moreover condemn the baptism of the infants of believers, whom we believe ought to be baptized and sealed with the sign of the covenant, as the children in Israel formerly were circumcised, upon the same promises which are made unto our children.”

Infant Baptism as the Mark of the Beast


The Anabaptists saw the Mark of the Beast as infant baptism. This is because the government came to use it as the basis for citizenship, and no man could buy and sell unless he was baptized as an infant.
If one did not profess belief in infant baptism, as we see with Hubmaier, he was subject to being burned at the stake.

“And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: and that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.”
Revelation 13:16-17

In Anabaptist theology, perhaps, the first beast would be the devil, and his government of Christendom headed by a pope, and the papacy makes the people worship the Papal Christendom empire, with its Emperor subject to the Pope as final authority.

“And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.” –Revelation 13:12

The Beast was seen as that which was killing the Anabaptists.

“And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.”

For the Anabaptists, “Infant baptism was the ‘mark’ or ‘character of the beast’ in violation of Christ’s fundamental law of church constitution (Acts 8:37, Acts 10:47–Ed)” –from the book English Baptist Reformation: (From 1609 to 1641 A.D.) found at this link–